Particle, Nuclear and Astrophysics Lab

Particle, Nuclear and Astrophysics Lab



Description of the measurements

List of the measurements

  1. Study of Cherenkov-radiation (CSM)
  2. Reactor physics measurements (REF)
  3. Nuclear physics measurements (NUF)
  4. Nuclear element analytics (NEA)
  5. Mössbauer-spectroscopy (MOS)
  6. Manipulation of atoms with lasers (AML)
  7. Element analytics with X-rays produced by accelerated particles (PIX)
  8. Astronomical observational exercises at Piszkéstető (PTM)
  9. Digital image processing in astrophysics (KFD)
  10. Studies of magnetohydrodynamical waves (MHD)
  11. Detectors in particle and nuclear physics (RMD)
  12. Building data acquisition systems for scientific research (DAQ)
  13. Accelerator energy calibration with the Al(p,g)Si nuclear reaction (GYE)
  14. Studies of effects of atmospheric aerosols using ion beam microanalythical methods (AER)
  15. Accelerator operation exercises on the new Tandetron of ATOMKI (TDT)
  16. Fundamental measurements in high energy particle and nuclear physics (HEP)
  17. Detection techniques of fast neutrons (GND)
  18. Silicon tracking detectors in high energy physics (ITS)

Study of Cherenkov-radiation (CSM)

Location of the laboratory, contact: ELTE TTK, Department of Atomic Physics
Northern building P.11 (level -1.)
Gábor Veres, 3.88, tel.: 6335 (vg at ludens.elte.hu)

Description of the measurement (HU): [pdf], Exercises (HU): [pdf]

Short description: In this exercise we will study common decay products of particles created in showers initiated by cosmic rays, the muons. The muons will be detected by two scintillator rods placed above each other, requiring the coincidence of the signals arriving from them. The high-speed muons emit Cherenkov-radiation in a water tank placed between the two rods, which is registered by another very sensitive photoelectron-multiplier. The position of the rod can be changed, and the Cherenkov-angle can be measured based on the coincidence rates counted at various positions. The experimental results will be compared in detail with theoretical predictions, as well as cosmic muon fluxes measured by other experiments. The detailed assembly, adjustment, commissioning, verification and operation of the equipment, as well as writing a simple computer simulation to help interpret the data also belongs to this exercise.

Reactor physics measurements (REF)

Location of the laboratory, contact: Institute of Nuclear Techniques, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, building "TR" (educational nuclear reactor): map

Lab supervisors and descriptions of the measurements:
Determination of delayed neutron parameters (Máté Szieberth, szieberth at reak.bme.hu) [pdf EN]
Neutron activation analysis (Máté Szieberth, szieberth at reak.bme.hu), [pdf EN]
Determination of the thermal neutron flux (Máté Szieberth, szieberth at reak.bme.hu), [pdf EN]
Studies of neutron detectors (Máté Szieberth, szieberth at reak.bme.hu), [html HU]

Short description: The students will conduct the above listed measurements over the course of this exercise on four different days. Each measurement forms a separate unit.

Nuclear physics measurements (NUF)

Location of the laboratory, contact:: HAS Wigner RCP, Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics.
Building 13, basement, laboratory 19a. Phone: +36/1-392-2517. map
János Sziklai (sziklai.janos at wigner.mta.hu)

Mérésleírás/instructions: [pdf]

Short description: High-resolution charged particle spectroscopy and particle identification. Comment: at the moment only the alpha-spectroscopy measurement is offered for students, which is described in the first half of the above textbook material. It is also useful to read the second half on gamma spectroscopy, but that measurement will not be conducted in the laboratory.

Nuclear element analytics (NEA)

Location of the laboratory, contact: HAS Wigner RCP, Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics. Building 13, office 112. Phone: +36/1-392-2222/3962 map
Edit Szilágyi (szilagyi.edit at wigner.mta.hu)

Instructions (EN): [pdf].
Instructions, first part (HU): [pdf], second part (HU): [doc], [htm], [pdf]

Short description: The students will be introduced to element analytics methods based on the scattering of accelerated ions. In solid state materials with various chemical composition one will have to determine the quantity and depth distribution of additives. We are going to use a He beam accelerated to a few MeV energy. We will identify the elements that are heavier than He with RBS method (Rutherford Backscattering), and that are lighter with ERDA method (Elastic Recoil Detection). The measurements will be conducted at the 5 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator of the Wigner RCP. During these measurements, the students will learn the preparation of samples for the measurements, the preparation of the vacuum, the positioning and focusing of the ion beam, the acquisition of scattering spectra and their evaluation.

Mössbauer spectroscopy (MOS)

Location of the laboratory, contact: HAS Wigner RCP, Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics. Building 13, offices 12 and 7. Phone: +36/1-392-2761
Dénes Lajos Nagy (nagy.denes at wigner.mta.hu),

Instructions, first part (HU): [doc], [htm], [pdf], Second part (HU): [pdf].
An introduction in English (EN): [pdf]
The material from an Erasmus-school (EN): [ppt] and the corresponding problems (EN): [ppt]
For those interested more deeply, can read the following paper (EN): [pdf] and presentation (EN): [ppt].
Further reading on the Mössbauer spectroscopy at synchrotrons (EN): [pptx].
Finally, on the latest results and development plans of the laboratory, see this presentation (HU): [pptx].
Short description: This measurement is an advanced continuation of the introductory laboratory of the Mössbauer effect within the Modern Analysis Methods Laboratory (BSc 6th semester).

Manipulation of atoms with lasers (AML)

This laboratory is not operational in 2019.

Location of the laboratory, contact: HAS Wigner RCP, Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics.
Building 3, ground floor, office 64 and 1st floor office 106. Phone: +36/1-392-2222/3473 map
Béla Ráczkevi (raczkevi at rmki.kfki.hu)

On the cooling with lasers/A lézeres hűtésről: [pdf], On the coherent manipulation of atomic systems/atomi rendszerek koherens manipulációjáról: [pdf]

Short description: Within this laboratory exercise we are going to study the mechanical effects of resonant laser radiation on atoms. We will trap rubidium atoms using the radiation of solid state lasers adjusted resonantly. We will familiarize ourselves with the structure of the spectrum of the rubidium atom, and we will study the widening of spectral lines on the atomic radius and in rubidium vapor. We are going to stabilize the lasers needed for the trapping process on the wavelength of the trapping transitions. We will measure the fillup time of the trap, and determine the number and density of the trapped atoms.

Element analytics with X-rays produced by accelerated particles (PIX)

Location of the laboratory, contact: HAS Wigner RCP, Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics.
Building 13, office 103 and basement, laboratory 19. Phone: +36/1-392-2222/1778 map
Imre Kovács (kovacs.imre at wigner.mta.hu)

Mérésleírás/instructions: [pdf]

Short description: The Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) method can be applied widely, and it is a high-sensitivity, multi-element analytics method. We will direct the ion beam of few MeV, produced by the particle accelerator, on the sample to be studied, which induces a characteristic X-ray radiation in the sample. The chemical composition of the sample can be determined based on the detection of these X-rays. With the PIXE method one can analyze very small amounts of sample with a sensitivity of around ppm (parts per million) level, as well as the complex determination of the chemical composition of the sample in combination with other ion beam analytics methods. The PIXE method with external beam often finds its application in the analysis of artwork and archeological artifacts. During the laboratory we will get familiar with the operation of the Van de Graaff-type particle accelerators, and with the specifics of the experimental work conducted at large infrastructure and facilities.
The website of the laboratory, where further introductory informations can be obtained, can be found at this address.
Literature for the preparation:
1.) Modern Fizikai Laboratórium jegyzet (szerk.: Papp Elemér): Röntgen-fluoreszcencia analízis (XRF) és a Moseley-törvény
2.) Az atomenergia és magkutatás újabb eredményei sorozat, 9. kötet: Ionokkal keltett Auger-eletkronok és röntgensugárzás (szerk: Koltay Ede)

Astronomical observational exercises at Piszkéstető (PTM)

Location of the laboratory. Piszkéstető Observatory.
Contact: Krisztián Sárneczky (sarneczky.krisztian at csfk.mta.hu) at Piszkéstető
Date: weekends in April and May. Dates to be announced later.
Travel: the groups should take the regular bus from Stadionok (Budapest) on Friday at 14:45, and arrive at Piszkéstető at 18:55. On their way back, they should start on Sunday at 15:11 from Piszkéstető and arrive at Budapest at 17:25. These are direct buses, no need to change. The bus tickets have to be paid by the students.
Accommodation: housing will be offered at Piszkéstető in the Observatory for the students free of charge.
Meals: Everyone should bring sufficient food for the weekend with them. The Observatory is in a fairly remote place with no restaurants or shops close by. We cannot contribute to the cost of the meals.
Program: TBA later
Equipment: Please bring your own laptops, preferably running Linux. Please install IRAF in advance [html], [installation guide]. IRAF can be installed on MacOS as well and probably even on CygWin, but for Windows users, we recommend a Linux distro installed in Virtualbox, QEMU, or something equivalent. For the observation at night in the observation dome without heating we strongly recommend to bring very warm clothes, winter coat, and so on, even if the daytime temperature is warm.
Recommended literature:
Description of the 1 meter RCC telescope: [html].
Information on the telescopes and instruments at Piszkéstető: [html].
A step-by-step observing guide for the Schmidt telescope, which we will most likely use: [html].
The telescopes are controlled via the program ccdSH: [html].
If you are familiar with the principles of a CCD detector, please read up on that topic in advance. And you can find several guides for aperture photometry with IRAF on the internet (e.g. [html].

Digital image processing in astrophysics (KFD)

Location of the laboratory, contact: Eövtös Loránd University, Institute of Physics, Department of Atomic Physics
Northern building, 3rd floor, office 3.86
Zsolt Frei (frei at alcyone.elte.hu)

Short description: We will familiarize ourselves with the image processing methods commonly used in astrophysics, the improvement of CCD pictures, the determination of the luminosity of stars. Detailed instructions can be obtained from Zsolt Frei before the laboratory exercise starts.

Studies of magnetohydrodynamical waves (MHD)

Location of the laboratory and contact: HAS Wigner RCP, Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics.
Building 2, office 124. Phone: +36/1-392-2222 (1728). map
Zoltán Németh (nemeth.zoltan at wigner.mta.hu), Anikó Timár (timar.aniko at wigner.mta.hu)

Short description: Study of magnetohydrodynamical waves in the heliosphere based on observations from the twin STEREO solar probe. After the introduction into Basic Space Plasma Physics, we learn the background of solar wind measurements. Then we process raw observational data, where we search and interpret solar events.

Literature:

Detectors in particle and nuclear physics (RMD)

The location of the measurement, contact: HAS Wigner RCP, Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, map, Dezső Varga, Gergő Hamar (Dezso.Varga at cern.ch)

Short description:
- timing of scintillators, triggering on beta electrons (adjustments of high voltage and discriminator levels), measurement of trigger efficiency
- studies of the signals of gaseous detectors with beta electrons; timing and efficiency
- measurement of the spatial resolution, reconstruction of the distribution of hits based on two-dimensional read-out

Building data acquisition systems for scientific research (DAQ)

Place and contact: HAS Wigner RCP, Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics. Building 2, office 006. Phone: +36/1-392-2222 (1834). map,
Kiss Tivadar (Kiss.Tivadar at wigner.mta.hu), Barnaföldi Gergely (Barnafoldi.Gergely at wigner.mta.hu)

Description of the measurement (HU): [doc]

Further material (HU): [ppt] ,[ppt]

Short description:
We introduce the student to the building and programming of a FPGA-based data acquisition system for high-energy particle detectors, which is able to handle hundred thousand or even more high-speed data channels. This lab is primarily recommended to students interested in digital electronics and programming.

Accelerator energy calibration with the Al(p,g)Si nuclear reaction (GYE)

Location of the measurement, contact: HAS Institute for Nuclear Research, Debrecen, Van de Graaff-5 accelerator, webpage, György Gyürki (gyurky at atomki.hu)

Description of the measurement (HU): [pdf]

The accelerator does not operate on weekends, so the measurement is normally conducted in two consecutive working days in Debrecen, with early travel to Debrecen on the first morning, one night have to be spent in Debrecen, and continuing work on the second day, travel back to Budapest on the evening of the second day.

Short description: The intensity of the gamma line at 1780 keV produced in the nuclear reaction mentioned in the title shows a resonance at the proton energy of 992 keV. Since the protons decelerate in a thick aluminium target, the protons with a higher energy than this threshold will surely reach this resonant frequency at a certain depth. Therefore the gamma yield will be a step function of the proton energy. This reaction is thus usable for the energy calibration of the accelerator (a one-day measurement). If we produce a sufficiently thin target with vaacum evaporation, then the gamma yield will show a Gaussian peak as a function of the proton energy, and the calibration can be carried out this way as well (two-day measurement: sample preparation, irradiation). In both cases the steps in energy can be taken upwards and downwards as well, thereby mapping out the hysteresis of the analysator magnet. The measurement on the thin target is better than on the thick target, because there are other resonances as well with smaller treshold energies. This way, in case of the thick target, the yield of the peak at 1780 keV does not start from zero, although a step function can still be obtained. On a thin target the Gaussian peak of the gamma yield sits on zero background. The measurement is conducted at the Van de Graaff-5 or at the Tandetron accelerator in Debrecen.

Studies of effects of atmospheric aerosols using ion beam microanalythical methods (AER)

Location of the measurement, contact: HAS Institute for Nuclear Research, Debrecen, Van de Graaff-5 accelerator, webpage, Zsófia Kertész (zsofi at atomki.hu)

Description of the measurement: [pdf]

Short description: These days one of the most important environmental problems in cities is the concentration of the atmospheric aerosol, also known colloquially as flying dust. Due to its negative effect on the human health, as well as their role in the development of the radiation balance of the Earth, the precise, quantitative survey of the properties of atmospheric aerosol particles is not only important for researchers, but also for certain governments and authorities (see the EU directive 2008/50). The aim of the research is the characterisation of the urban aerosol, mapping the periods with high air pollution, as well as the study of aerosol exposure on humans. The work is organically connected to the atmospheric aerosol research conducted in the Ion source application laboratory of the HAS Institute for Nuclear Research. The exercise takes 2-3 days (on consecutive days). The tasks are: sample collection, the determination of the composition of aerosol samples with ion beam analytics methods, mapping the aerosol sources using statistical analysis. The measurement is conducted at the Van de Graaff-5 accelerator in Debrecen.

Accelerator operation exercises on the new Tandetron of ATOMKI (TDT)

The location of the measurement, contact: HAS Institute for Nuclear Research, Debrecen, Tandetron accelerator, webpage of the Tandetron, István Rajta (rajta at atomki.hu)

Map and directions to the Tandetron Laboratory (EN): [pdf]

GPS coordinates: 47.542765, E21.623186

Description of the measurement (EN): [pdf]

Description of the measurement (HU): [pdf]

Short description: The new Tandetron accelerator of the ATOMKI Institute was commissioned in May 2014, while the duoplasmatron ion source connected to it started operations in January 2015. This way the students will have the opportunity to work with the newest and most modern particle accelerator of Hungary, and conduct exercises with it. The operation of the accelerator is fully controlled by a computer. Most important parameters: minimal terminal voltage is 80 kV, maximal terminal voltage is 2200 kV, stability is better than 200 V, proton current is more than 20 microamperes. The complex Tandetron Laboratory is going to be extended with further elements and opportunities, but it is already in operation, and thus gaining experience with it now is highly recommended. The exercise takes two days, and it may be possible to accept more than one group (advance arrangements are always necessary).

Measurements in High Energy Physics (HEP)

Location, contact: Eötvös University, Department of Atomic Physics & Wigner Research Center for Physics
Máté Csanád (csanad at elte.hu) és Róbert Vértesi (vertesi.robert at wigner.mta.hu)

Measurement description: [pdf], simulation software and data usage help: [html]
The Υ measurement description: [pdf]
Further reading: [pdf], [pdf]

Short description: The main goal of high energy nuclear or heavy ion physics is to understand the strong interaction better, and to investigate the properties of the strongly interacting quark gluon plasma (sQGP) that filled the early uninverse in the first few microseconds after the big bang. In order to do so ultrarelativistic particles or nucleii are collided. We then investigate the distributions the particles created in these collision, via the freeze-out of the sQGP, few fm/c after the collision. From these distributions, we may infer the properties and time evolution of the sQGP. Goal of present measurement is to understand some of the basic measurements of high energy physics, based on simulations and simplified real data. This measurement requires the knowledge of c++, and ROOT knowledge is a plus (but this can be learned on the way). All the software can be run on the standard operating systems (windows 10, ubuntu, macOS/OS X) via a unix terminal.

Detection techniques of fast neutrons (GND)

Location, contact: ELTE TTK, Department of Atomic Physics
Ákos Horváth (akos at ludens.elte.hu)

Short description: The investigation of a neutron detector during this lab will demonstrate the operating principles of large neutron detector systems used in nuclear physics laboratories worldwide. Here we detect neutrons originating from a californium source using liquid scintillation technique. The first issue is to investigate pulse shape discrimination properties of the detector after digitalization of the signal, which enable us to discriminate neutrons from gamma rays. The fit of the pulse shape to a known function (from the literature) will be used. The second issue is the investigation of the efficiency of the neutron detection. We will run neutrondetector simulation softwares the establish our results by theoretical framework, as well.
Literature: [pdf], [pdf], [pdf], [pdf], [pdf], [pdf]

Silicon tracking detectors in high energy physics (ITS)

Location of the laboratory, contact: HAS Wigner RCP, Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics.
Mónika Varga-Kőfaragó (varga-kofarago.monika at wigner.mta.hu)

Description of the measurement (HU): [pdf]

Short description: In a fraction of a second after the Big Bang the Universe existed in the form of the so called quark-gluon plasma state, which can be produced in the lead-lead ion collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The quark-gluon plasma is a strongly interacting liquid, in which the quarks exist in a way that they are not confined into hadrons, and by studying this plasma, one can investigate the strong interaction. The ALICE experiment is specialized on the research of lead-lead collisions, and is one of the four large LHC experiments. The ALICE experiment plans such measurements in the future that necessitate a very fast and precise tracking detector, and for this reason there will be several large upgrades between 2019 and 2020. Among other things, the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of ALICE will be replaced and upgraded, which will make it possible to determine the precise location of the collision, and following the trajectories of the produced charged particles precisely. The new detector will be equipped with so called Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS). However, there were no MAPS that fulfilled all the requirements of the new detector. Thereofre the ALICE experiment has developed in the last few years a new detector, the ALICE Pixel Detector (ALPIDE), which belongs today among the most developed MAPS-type sensors. During this laboratory exercise, the students will get familiar with the MAPS-type silicon sensors through experiments conducted with the ALPIDE.



Particle, Nuclear and Astrophysics Lab